Whole Brain Radiotherapy (WBRT) With Sorafenib for Breast Cancer Brain Metastases (BCBM)


Sorafenib is a new type of anti-cancer drug. It belongs to a new class of medications known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Sorafenib is thought to work against cancer in many ways. It helps decrease blood supply to the tumor. It also blocks some proteins that help the tumor cells to grow." Sorafenib is approved by the Food and Drug administration (FDA) for treatment for other cancers like liver and kidney cancer. Sorafenib has also been studied in the treatment of breast cancer that has spread but is not specifically approved for the treatment of breast cancer. It has been studied both as a single agent and also in combination with other anti-cancer therapies for breast cancer. In laboratory models and in some patients with other cancers, sorafenib has been studied in tumors in the brain. In this study, sorafenib will be given together with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Overall this research study is designed to answer 2 main questions: 1. What dose of sorafenib should be used together with WBRT? 2. What are the side effects of sorafenib and WBRT when given together?

Study Start Date

November 2012

Estimated Completion Date

November 2016


  • Radiation: Whole Brain Radiotherapy (WBRT)
  • Drug: Sorafenib


  • Neurology: Neurologic Oncology,Neuroradiology
  • Oncology: Breast,Neurologic Oncology,Pharmacology/Therapy,Radiation Oncology

MeSH Terms

  • Brain
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Radiotherapy
  • Sorafenib

Study ID

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center -- 12-046



Trial ID


Study Type


Trial Phase

Phase 1

Enrollment Quota



Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

Inclusion Criteria

  • Histologically-confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma of the breast (Confirmation will be done at MSKCC)
  • Age ?18 years.
  • Radiologic evidence of new and/or progressive brain metastasis (>10 mm in longest dimension) by MR imaging of the Brain
  • Life expectancy of >12 weeks.
  • ECOG Performance of 0 to 2 Stable corticosteroid dose (not exceeding more than 16 mg daily) for ? 5 days.
  • No limit to prior therapies with last anti-cancer treatment ? 2 weeks from initiation of protocol based therapy provided all toxicities (other than alopecia) have resolved to ?Grade 1 or baseline.
  • Planned WBRT based on number (? 3 lesions) and/or size (? 1 cm) of BMs. Patients who require additional clinically indicated stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in addition to WBRT will also be eligible. Patients with prior SRS will also be eligible, provided that there are new, non-irradiated measurable brain lesions.
  • Prior hormonal therapy for locally advanced or metastatic disease is allowed but this must have been discontinued prior to enrollment. No washout period will be required.
  • Adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function as assessed by the following:
  • Granulocyte count ? 1,000/?L, platelet count ? 100,000/?L, and hemoglobin ? 10 g/dL (hematologic parameters must be assessed at least 14 days after a prior transfusion, if any)
  • Serum bilirubin ? 1.5 mg/dL
  • AST, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase ? 2.5 × ULN except for: Patients with hepatic metastases: ALT and AST ? 5 × ULN patients with hepatic and/or bone metastases: alkaline phosphatase ? 5 × ULN and patients with Gilbert's disease: serum bilirubin < 5 mg/dL
  • Serum creatinine ? 1.5 mg/dL or creatinine clearance of ? 60 mL/min based on a 24-hour urine collection
  • Women of childbearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test performed within 7 days prior to enrollment and must agree to use adequate contraception prior to enrollment and for the duration of study participation. Subjects (men and women) of childbearing potential must agree to use adequate contraception beginning at the signing of the ICF until at least 30 days after the last dose of study drug.
  • Patients must be able to swallow and retain oral medication.

Exclusion Criteria

  • Leptomeningeal metastases, hemorrhagic metastases, presence of midline shift
  • Contraindications to sorafenib
  • Prior treatment with any agent that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or VEGF receptors (VEGFR) (licensed or investigational including sorafenib), except bevacizumab.
  • Craniotomy or any other major surgery, open biopsy, or significant traumatic injury within 4 weeks of enrollment.
  • Serious, non-healing wound, ulcer, or bone fracture.
  • Uncontrolled seizures
  • Use of cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing anti-epileptic drugs (such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, or phenobarbital) is not allowed.
  • Cardiac disease: Congestive heart failure >class II New York Heart Association (NYHA) (See Appendix B, or
  • Unstable angina (anginal symptoms at rest), or new-onset angina (begun within the last 3 months), or myocardial infarction within the 6 months prior to enrollment, or
  • Cardiac ventricular arrhythmias requiring anti-arrhythmic therapy. Thrombolic, embolic, venous, or arterial events such as a cerebrovascular accident including transient ischemic attacks within the past 6 months.
  • Evidence or history of bleeding diathesis or coagulopathy at the time of enrollment.
  • Pulmonary hemorrhage/bleeding event >National Cancer Institute Common Terminology for Adverse Events (NCI-CTCAE, version 4.0) Grade 2 within 4 weeks of enrollment.
  • Any other hemorrhage/bleeding event ?NCI-CTCAE Grade 3 within 4 weeks of enrollment.
  • Therapeutic anticoagulation with Vitamin-K antagonists (e.g., warfarin) or with heparins and heparinoids. However, prophylactic anticoagulation as described below is allowed:
  • Low dose warfarin (1 mg orally, once daily) with PT-INR ? 1.5 x ULN is permitted. Infrequent bleeding or elevations in PT-INR have been reported in some subjects taking warfarin while on sorafenib or capecitabine therapy. Therefore, subjects taking concomitant warfarin should be monitored regularly for changes in PT, PT-INR or clinical bleeding episodes.
  • Low dose aspirin (? 100 mg daily). Active clinically serious infection >NCI-CTCAE Grade 2.
  • Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or chronic hepatitis B or C (the safety and effectiveness of sorafenib in this patient population have not been studied).
  • Previous or concurrent cancer that is distinct in primary site or histology from breast cancer within 5 years prior to enrollment EXCEPT cervical cancer in situ, treated basal cell carcinoma, superficial bladder tumors [Ta and Tis]. Subjects who have used strong CYP3A4 inducers (eg, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, St. John's Wort [Hypericum perforatum], dexamethasone at a dose of greater than 16 mg daily, or rifampin [rifampicin], and/or rifabutin) within 28 days before randomization.
  • Concurrent anti-cancer therapy (chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, radiation therapy (other than that specified by the protocol), surgery, immunotherapy, biologic therapy including trastuzumab, lapatinib, bevacizumab, tyrosine kinase inhibitors other than sorafenib or tumor embolization
  • Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding.
  • Use of any investigational drug within 28 days or 5 half-lives, whichever is longer, preceding enrollment. For the purposes of this study, bevacizumab will not be considered investigational therapy.
  • Inability to comply with protocol and /or not willing or not available for follow-up assessments.
  • Any condition which in the investigator's opinion makes the patient unsuitable for the study participation.




18 Years and older

Accepts Healthy Volunteers


Study Locations and Contact Information (4)

Study Location Distance Name Phone Email
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Suffolk - Commack, New York 26.2 miles None None None
Memorial Sloan Kettering West Harrison - West Harrison, New York 28.7 miles None None None
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center - New York, New York 50.7 miles Andrew Seidman MD 646-888-5445 None
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center - New York, New York 50.7 miles None None None

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